Electronics engineering (or Electronic Engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which uses non-linear and active electrical components such as semiconductor devices, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits to design electronic circuits, devices, microprocessors, microcontrollers and other systems. In this field of engineering, engineers design and test circuits that uses the electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuner circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit. Electronics projects having more demand in engineering level and also useful for EEE students. Electronics engineering consist of many small and large circuits which include integrated circuits, resisters etc. these circuits are easy and interesting to learn. Micro World Engineering Solution provide number of electronic projects which are well in performance.
This project will not fully remove the responsibility from their soldiers, but shares the maximum responsibility and will reduce human mistakes on the border. The master slave will sence any living objects inside the range and confirms manually is it unwanted objects or not and provide the location to slave, in response, arduino generates the code on the site and send to the watch tower where the receiver receives the code, provides code to arduino, interprets the location of the object corresponding to received code, activates targeting system, at last firing system.
In this project we present how to detect the leakage using a gas sensor and book a new cylinder automatically by sending a message to agency. The gas sensor is very sensitive to methane and propane which are main constituents of LPG. A load cell is used to measure the weight of cylinder continuously. The weight of cylinder is displayed continuously MQ-6 sensors will be placed in different place of room, output of sensor will become high when there is LPG leakage is present. When the sensor output is high buzzer will be switched on and a message will be sent to customer and nearest gas agency via GSM. When the weight of cylinder equal to threshold value a message will be sent to agency to book new cylinder. At the gas agency we will provide a pc software which will automatically enter the gas no and will provide the details of delivery to the customer
In surveillance, human detection is costly because of the use of computer. It reserves too much space for continues recording and also require manpower to detect the unauthorized Activity. But compared to the existing system Raspberry pi system is much cheaper with better resolution and low power consumption feature. Here pyro electric infrared (PIR) sensors are used as a simple but powerful people presence triggers. This system is suitable for small personal area surveillance. i.e. personal office cabin, bank locker room, parking entrance. Whenever the motion is detected through PIR sensor inside the room the image is captured through camera and temporarily stored in the raspberry pi module. Internet of things based application can be used remotely to view the activity and get notifications when motion is detected. System works standalone without the PC once programmed. One android Application is used to get the notification on motion detection.
Vision is the most important part of human physiology as 83% of information human being gets from the environment is via sight. The 2011 statistics by the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 285 billion people in world with visual impairment, 39 billion of which are blind and 246 with low vision. The traditional and oldest mobility aids for persons with visual impairments are the walking cane (also called white cane or stick) and guide dogs. The most important drawbacks of these aids are necessary skills and training phase, range of motion and very little information conveyed. With the rapid advances of modern technology, both in hardware and software front have brought potential to provide intelligent navigation capabilities. Recently there has been a lot of Electronic Travel Aids (ETA) designed and devised to help the blind navigate independently and safely. Also high-end technological solutions have been introduced recently to help blind persons navigate independently. While such systems are suitable for outdoor navigation, due to the need for line of sight access to satellites, they still need additional components to improve on the resolution and proximity detection to prevent collision of the blind persons with other objects and hence subject his/her life to danger. However in comparison to other technologies many blind guidance systems use ultrasound because of its immunity to the environmental noise. Another reason why ultrasonic is popular is that the technology is relatively inexpensive, and also ultrasound emitters and detectors are small enough to be carried without the need for complex circuitry. The project is based on a theoretical model and a system concept to provide a smart electronic aid for blind people. Apart from the conventional navigation systems, blind aid systems can be used with depth measuring circuitry which will be helpful to measure the depth in case of dealing with the stairs and on stick vibration circuitry to inform the obstacle alert. These different units are discussed to implement the design of a “smart stick”.
Advancements in sensor technology have brought the automated real-time bridge health monitoring
System. Many long span bridges in Korea and in Japan have adopted this real-time health monitoring system.
However, current system uses complicated and high cost wired network amongst sensors in the bridge and high cost
Optical cable between the bridge and the management center, which increases the overall cost of installation and
Maintenance cost of health monitoring system. The complicated wiring also makes the installation and Repair/replacement process difficult and expensive. In this paper, a new idea of bridge health monitoring systems
Suggested GSM for long distance (between the bridge and the management center) data communication is tested
Nowadays Earthquake is natural calamity, which cannot be controlled by Human beings. So to save the human beings and all other there is huge need of application such that they can protect ourselves form this natural calamity. There is one another application, the seismometer which plots the seismograph at the time of earthquake takes place. In this project the piezo sensor is used which converts the mechanical vibration into its equivalent electrical voltage instead of plotting seismograph. The another application which is from robotics ,It is very essential to have a robot during disaster conditions like Earthquake or Bomb blast, where we have to identify live human beings as quickly as possible to save life.
Disasters are common in coal mine due to the complexity of its natural Environment. These frequent disasters bring huge loss of possession and life. Therefore, the safe production of coal in the mine is inevitable. A cost effective ZigBee-based wireless supervising system for coal mine is presented. An intelligent helmet is used as a mobile safety system with sensor network. The system adopted a ZigBee wireless technology to build wireless sensor networks, realized real-time surveillance with early-warning intelligence on methane, temperature, humidity in mining area to reduce potential safety problems in coal production. ARM 7 micro-controller is used for controlling all the operations. Sensors, an RF receiver and transmitter for location identification, LCD (Liquid-crystal-display) and a keyboard with alert buttons are used as input/output devices. As a result of this project, we obtained the desired system having a range of communication of 8 meters which give proper results in normal atmospheric conditions.
Present Traffic Light Controllers (TLC) are based on microcontroller and microprocessor. These TLC have limitations because it uses the pre-defined hardware, which is functioning according to the program that does not have the flexibility of modification on real time basis. Due to the fixed time intervals of green, orange and red signals the waiting time is more and car uses more fuel. To make traffic light controlling more efficient, we exploit the emergence of new technique called as “Intelligent traffic light controller”. This makes the use of Sensor Networks along with Embedded Technology.
In computer security, authentication is such a technique by which the system identifies the genuine users. Among several authentication schemes password based authentication is still one of the widely accepted. Color password is widely famous, but it is prone to shoulder surfing attacks, in which an attacker can record the login procedure of a user for an entire session and can retrieve the user original PIN. Traditional PIN-entry methods are vulnerable to a wide class of observation attacks such as brute force attacks, side channel attacks etc. A number of alternative PIN-entry methods that are based on human cognitive skills have been proposed till date. These methods can be classified into two classes regarding information available to a passive adversary: fully observable and partially observable. In this paper, we propose an intelligent user interface, known as Color Lock to resist the password attacks so that any genuine user can enter the session PIN without disclosing the actual PIN. The Color Lock is based on a partially observable attacker model. The experimental analysis shows that the Color Lock interface is safe and easy to use.
The electronic control assembly allows the system to unlock the device with a Password. A four digit predefined password needs to be specified the user. A 4x3 Matrix KEYPAD and a 16x2 LCD have been used here to set the password While unlocking, if the entered password from keypad matches with the stored password, then the lock opens and a message is displayed on LCD. Also an output pin is made high to be used for further purpose. As the program starts, string ‘Enter Password’ is Displayed on LCD. The keypad is scanned for pressed digits one by one. Every time, row and column of the key pressed is detected and the digit is displayed on LCD. If all the four digits match with set password, LCD displays ‘password is correct’ and the lock output pin goes high and the led glows. If the security code is wrong, ‘Wrong Password’ is sent to be displayed on LCD and the buzzer rings which is connected to the microcontroller. It has wide applications in the present world. It is mainly used for door alarms, equipment privacy locks, cell phones, computers and in many lock systems.
Now when we travels from bus one problem is very common is balance amount ,because of bus ticket in floating rate. For Example is 2.40 RS 3.37 RS This problem is over come on e-ticket. Also recharge facilities available in the system. The system can be used in all places were frequent tickets have to be issued like bus, train etc. The project reduces the time for issuing the ticket. It also makes benefit to the counter incharge since he has to no more ask change of money for odd amount. The customer can recharge his account whenever required and the burden of standing in a line is also reduced.The micro-controller 89Cxx is the heart of the system. For the card we have used an eeprom for storing the data and the balance amount of the user. This card will be used by every customer and having a unique customer ID for the reference. The amount is deducted by the machine when it is connected and the location is selected. The controller asks to select the locations and the number of persons and it deducts the value for the same. The unit is having a buzzer for audio indication and led as visual indication
The Government of India in an effort to ensure fair supply of food items to all citizens of India instituted under Public Distribution System (PDS). Essential commodities such as Rice, Wheat, Sugar, Kerosene, etc., are supplied to the targeted underprivileged sections as per the eligibility and at fixed by the Government of India. In spite of the best efforts by Government officials at various levels, there are a few bottle-necks and inconveniences to the targeted citizens in availing the services provided. The aim of this project is to organize and summarize existing theoretical and empirical work on corruption with a view identifying opportunities for further research. Computerization can help in modernizing. This project discusses strategy adapted in using ICT to control diversion and leakage in the delivery mechanism and its successful application in computerization of food grain supply chain. The objective of the roject is to enhance the visibility, accessibility, and efficiency of the system by properly designing a software-system,
The main idea behind this project is to develop a nonintrusive system which can detect fatigue of the driver and issue a timely warning. Since a large number of road accidents occur due to the driver drowsiness. Hence this system will be helpful in preventing many accidents, and consequently save money and reduce personal suffering. This system will monitor the driver’s eyes using camera and by developing an algorithm we can detect symptoms of driver fatigue early enough to avoid accident. So this project will be helpful in detecting driver fatigue in advance and will gave warning output in form of sound and seat belt vibration whose frequency will vary between 100 to 300 Hzs. Moreover the warning will be deactivated manually rather than automatically. So for this purpose a deactivation switch will be used to deactivate warning. Moreover if driver felt drowsy there is possibility of sudden acceleration or deceleration hence we can judge this by Plotting a graph in time domain and when all the three input variables shows a possibility of fatigue at one moment then a Warning signal is given in form of text or red colour circle. This will directly give an indication of drowsiness/fatigue which can be further used as record of driver performance.
In BTS(Mobile Tower) systems there are many kind for devices connected in a panel. These devices are for control and protection of the BTS(Mobile Tower). If any of the fault is generated in the system the devices connected for corresponding protection will close its NO contact so that it can be used further for tripping the system and indication. The Fault Alert System for BTS(Mobile Tower) using GSM system will get the input from these devices and it will show the corresponding fault by lamp indication and by sending the message. A Hooter is also given to give indication by sound. This system can be used where Fault Alrt System for BTS(Mobile Tower) using GSM systems are unmanned or at unmanned stations.
Here we have used a combustible gas detection sensor whose resistance changes when it senses a combustible gas. The response to other gas is very less. The micro-controller 89C51 is used for controlling the alarm, giving the pulses for various indications. Here the microcontroller is interfaced with the comparator logic which gives a low signal to the controller when it senses the gas.
The smart city concept is still new in India, although it has received a lot of attention in few years when our present prime minister gave the idea of building hundred smart cities in India. Now with the upcoming large number of smart cities large numbers of responsibilities needs to be fulfilled. The prime need of smart lifestyle begins with cleanliness and cleanliness begins with dustbin. A society will get its waste dispatched properly only if the dustbins are placed well and collected well.
Smart dustbin using GSM is the new concept which is very helpful to keep our country clean and healthy. This system is works on microcontroller; AT89S52 microcontroller is the heart of the system, along with this a power supply is provided. A dustbin is divided in three parts namely empty, medium and full. This system has provided two LED’s green LED and red LED to indicate the status of dustbin i.e. either the dustbin is full or empty. When the dustbin is empty or medium green LED will turn on and it indicate that no need to stop to collect the garbage, and when the dustbin is full red LED will turn on and simultaneously using GSM a message is sent to drivers mobile as collect the garbage and shortest path of location is given. And on LCD Display status of dustbin is shown. This is the overall concept of our smart dustbin system design.
From the past many years we are seeing the notices of the college , companies ,offices is usually displayed on the normal board having number of notices written on the same board .So we were thinking that if all these notices are displayed at the same place one by one except occupying the whole board area. So we come to the conclusion to design a Notice board such that it can fulfill the requirements such as less manual operation, same notice can be displayed at the various places at the same time, the notice (board display) should be visible from maximum area or distance, compact and compatible, easy handling.
The micro-controller 89C52 is the heart of the system. For controlling the speed of motor we are using the firing angle control method for ac i/p. The micro-controller gives the firing pulses to the thyristor by taking the input from the zero crossing detector. The controller also checks the current logic level i/p coming from the comparator section so that the current of the motor does not exceed the rated current. According to the speed variation the controller displays the Led graph.The speed of the motor will vary by just pressing the increment and decrement keys on the keyboard.
People enjoy the convenience of on-line services, Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), and pervasive computing, but online environments, ATMs, and pervasive computing may bring many risks. In this project, we discuss how to prevent users’ passwords from being stolen by adversaries. We propose a virtual password concept involving a small amount of human computing to secure users’ passwords in on-line environments, ATMs, and pervasive computing. We adopt user-determined randomized linear generation functions to secure users’ passwords based on the fact that a server has more information than any adversary does. We analyze how the proposed schemes defend against phishing, key logger, and shoulder-surfing attacks. To the best of our Knowledge, our virtual password mechanism is the first one which is able to defend against all three attacks together.
Comparator will compare input speed voltage with reference voltage .If speed high comparator voltage will high. IF speed is low comparator voltage will low. Microcontroller checking the output of comparator and show the speed status on LCD. When speed reaching high speed Automatically timer will start and buzzer will ON. On LCD time Countdown Start from 10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1 Sec. After 10 Sec automatically break will activated and vehicle will stop. So we can stop the accident on Highway and also it is very helpful to avoiding overtaking on highway.
Every year ,we find more and more road accidents due to increased traffic on the roads, and if you see the statistics ,you will find that the causalities are more every year than that of 1970 Indo -Pak war. Experts says, increased motorist population, long working hours, stressful life, are the major cause. The factors are beyond one’s control , but if we could alert the driver on the highway,could save the many presicious lives.
Wouldn't it be great if we could somehow give visual commands to our computer without touching the keyboard or mouse? In this project, we propose an advanced laser gesture recognition application and use it to control several useful applications like PowerPoint Presentations, Media Players, etc. This is far more comfortable than using a remote control because you don't have to look for the correct buttons in the dark. All you have to do is make a few simple gestures anywhere in the camera's field of view with a laser pointer, and that's it! This program recognizes simple gestures made on a wall with a laser pointer such as left, right, up, down, two downward and two upward diagonals. Using advanced software techniques, user can even train the systeam to recognisze gesture and process action accordingly
LDR Locker system is a simple yet powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch. By using this system manual works are 100% removed. By using this system energy consumption is also reduced. By using this system we can easily secure the Bank locker Light dependent resistor, a photoconductive device has been used as the transducer to convert light energy into electrical energy With the help of this system the crime can be controlled
Producing agricultural products are difficult task as the plant comes to an attack from various micro-organisms, pests and bacterial diseases. The symptoms of the attacks are generally distinguished through the leaves, steams or fruit inspection. The present paper discusses the image processing techniques used in performing early detection of plant diseases through leaf features inspection. The objective of this work is to implement image analysis and classification techniques for extraction and classification of leaf diseases. Leaf image is captured and then processed to determine the status of each plant. Proposed framework is model into four parts image preprocessing including RGB to different color space conversion, image enhancement; segment the region of interest using K-mean clustering for statistical usage to determine the defect and severity areas of plant leaves, feature extraction and classification. texture feature extraction using statistical GLCM and color feature by means of mean values. Finally classification achieved using SVM.
Traffic congestion is a severe issue across the world and it has become a nightmare for the commuters in most of the urban settlements.in most of countries the accident are caused due to signal breaking and not following the rules so we came up with the system which will help to find out the signal breaking. Here we have placed the sensor at the signal if any car breaks the signal then the System will capture the photo of the user and will send the signal to the RTO officer using the web server to take the action against the user
Presently for adjusting the direction of the antenna the person has to himself go and rotate the direction of the antenna. It becomes very difficult for rotating the direction every time. So we will also need a man power for doing the same.
The micro-controller 89C52 is the heart of the system. Here the microcontroller is interfaced with the RF Reader through the UART of the controller. The communication between the controller and the RF Reader takes place with the help of this UART. The RF reader gives the unique code of the tag when the tag comes in the range of the RF Reader i.e is about 5 to 7cm. The controller receives this serially transmitted code by the Rf Reader and then it decodes the same to get the desired code. If this code matches the desired code then attendance will be saving in the database in the Pc
` Here we can keep the record of the attendance of one month for future purpose and we can show to their parents The controller gives the buzzer indication and the LED indication.
Here we are going to use two Microcontroller one on the transmitter side and other on the receiver side as shown in the block diagram. At the transmitter side the RF Transmitter module is interfaced with the controller for the data transfer as shown in the block diagram. The keyboard is used for the data sending the data. At the receiver side the controller is interfaced with the RF receiver module. The data transferred will be received through this module. The controller decodes the transmitted code and controls the devices connected to it through relays.
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a
six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator,
and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation
down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.
The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and
interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents
but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt
or hardware reset.
India government recently introduced a new campaign named “SWACH BHARATH” that is aiming to make our country clean and tidy. That is, now the condition of our country is very bad in the field of dustbin management. There are many dustbins in our cities and country sides. But the reality is nobody using it in an effective way. As we all saw that in cities and streets the dustbin is there and all the dustbins are near its side. The reason for this is, if one person deposit the dustbin outside of it, the person next coming to their will automatically throws the dustbin outside of the basket. This will continues.
Our intention is to approach this problem in a different manner. If the dustbin is underground and when it fills by garbage and move automatically towards dumping ground, then No one has a tendency to throw the garbage outside the basket. And the area we maintain as clean always. That is our project “SOLAR BASED SMART DUSTBIN “which is aimed to make our cities and streets clean and tidy.
the design and implementation of scene of the accident alarm system based with wireless network communications based on ARM, GPS and GSM, Pre-set of treatment centre as the information processing terminal for the location display and warns the alarm for the treatment people.
With the problem of global population aging increasing, lack of medical facility at the location of accident, inadequate accident sense system performance and other related issues have become increasingly prominent.
Smart airhosts is concept to realize the automation in airhosts services. In this restaurant the kitchen people can get orders from each passenger through voice alert. This project consists of two sections one is transmitter section and other is receiver section. In our project we have designed an electronic system to order through RF based wireless communication using a menu card provided on each table. Touch panel is used here, which offers simple and multiple menus driven control panel. Mainly touch screen technology is used where control or settings of different parameters in wide manner. We can select the items shown in its display and can order the selected items through touch panel. The total cost of the items is also displayed. This order details are collected by wireless receiver placed in the airhosts compartment or kitchen and will announce the items in its display along with the voice announcement through speaker.
A measurement is initiated via the send button. When first depressed the 40kHz pulse is sent out through the transmitter. After the PIC has completed the transmission pulse the receiver stage is entered. The receiver stage waits a certain amount of time before checking for signal reception. The receiver stage of the code waits for a specified amount of time based on the mask value. This wait period is to insure that the receiver does not register the transmission signal as the return signal and also to ignore the return signal bounced back from small obstructions that are between the device and the object that a measurement is being made to. If the mask is set to zero then the minimum default wait period is performed. This period of time is the time it takes for the transmitted signal to travel 1 ft and to return. Given the speed of sound, 1125 ft/s, and an actual distance of 2 ft this wait time is approximately 1.8ms. If the mask is greater than 0 then the wait period is the time that it takes for sound to travel 2 meters times the mask. This serves to make the mask value the approximate distance in meters below which a return signal will be ignored. This time period is approximately 5.8ms.
In all keypad based access system or authentication system there are high chances of password being overseen by unknown person who are standing near you. Or low lying persons can intentionally note you finger movements on the keypad and try to guess the password. Especially in ATM counter whenever you want to withdraw money you have to enter pin and then get access to your account. But if someone sees how you are entering the password they can make out you pin then only thing is they have to get you ATM card for that they can do pick pocketing or they can assault you and snatch the ATM card now as already they have finger movements of yours in the mind they can enter you pin and withdraw the money.
This system presents a low cost, less time consuming, safe and effective implementation of Smart Letter Box System through the wireless sensor networks which makes the use obstacle sensor. A special device, called hardware kit is realized and design for this purpose. Obstacle sensors has IR transmitter and IR receiver.IR transmitter transmit the rays. When the rays fall on to the object then it gets reflected to IR receiver, it results that the object is detected. In existing system user is notified by sending a text message through a SIM card, but here we introduce Android Application which gives the notification through the internet. The paper illustrates the description of this device; the android application which receives the notification .This system reduces the Human efforts.
Most of the people, from young age to the old age forget to take medicines on time. The elder people also forget which medicine to take at particular time. There should be a means to always remind such people to take medicines on time. This paper presents a Smart Medicine box to users who regularly take drugs or vitamin supplements, or nurses who take care of the older or patients. Our medicine box is programmable that reminds the nurses and users which specific pill to take at particular times of day and serves at those times each day. Smart medicine box is a project which is combination of hardware and software. This project is using a PIC (16F877A) to control the overall operation of circuit
Recently all over the world in every 40 seconds child become missing or kidnapped.The increasing prevalence of children wandering has many parents very concerned. We have seen and read many stories about children who are kidnapped or not reaching homes. Most of the stories have had tragic endings. This paper focuses on implementing children tracking system for every child attending school. With more children getting lost, Sen. Charles Schumer (NY) has proposed that the federal government provide funding for tracking devices for Autistic children so they do not go missing . These proposed tracking devices can be worn as wrist watches, anklets or in i-cards. The child module include microcontroller, Global positioning system (GPS), Global system for mobile communication (GSM) and receiver include parents mobile phone.
Nurses all around the world have risen to the challenge of new technology. Today, the nurses work in a variety of E-Health programs such as tele-triage. They access the person helath details. Nurse can also control the devices in the Hospital such as light fan. Nurses are also involved in standards development for the implementation of electronic health records and many nursing educational programs are now offered online. But this system is person depended so we have come with the system which will help the user to take medicine control hospital light automatically using the RTC(real time clock) the system will help the hospital and patient to monitor their medicine time and also will help the hospital to switch the devices automatically with the specified time by the user this system will also make the voice announcement for the user to understand which medicine should they take